#### Monolithic/Hybrid Analog To Digital (A/D) Converter

The basic ANALOG TO DIGITAL (A/D) CONVERTER CIRCUIT has already been explained in an earlier post. Apart from it, there are also many types of monolithic analog to digital converters, such as the integrating A/D, integrating A/D with three-stage outputs, and the tracking A/D with latched outputs. In addition to this, the outputs of A/D are coded in straight binary, binary-coded decimal (BCD), complementary binary (l’s or 2′s), sign-magnitude binary, and so on. The figure below illustrates an 8-bit monolithic CMOS analog to digital converter with three-state output. The converter is made compatible with a microprocessor and it also exhibits…

#### Analog to Digital Converters (A/D)

This type of converter is used to convert analog voltage to its corresponding digital output. The function of the analog to digital converter is exactly opposite to that of a DIGITAL TO ANALOG CONVERTER. Like a D/A converter, an A/D converter is also specified as 8, 10, 12 or 16 bit. Though there are many types of A/D converters, we will be discussing only about the successive approximation type. Successive Approximation Type Analog to Digital Converter A successive approximation A/D converter consists of a comparator, a successive approximation register (SAR), output latches, and a D/A converter. The circuit diagram is…

#### Monolithic/Hybrid Digital to Analog Converters

Earlier, I had explained two DIGITAL TO ANALOG CONVERTERS. Both of them have been designed for four inputs. But, if the number of inputs is more than four, the combination of output becomes more than 16. This makes the circuit more complex and the accuracy of the circuit reduces. Therefore, in critical and complex applications, a monolithic/hybrid D/A converter IC must be used. With the help of binary-weighted resistor, and R and 2R resistor methods, 8-bit,10-bit, 12-bit, 14-bit, and 16-bit D/A converters can be designed with a current output, voltage output, or both current and voltage outputs. The most commonly…

#### Digital to Analog Converters (D/A)

A D/A Converter is used when the binary output from a digital system is to be converted into its equivalent analog voltage or current. The binary output will be a sequence of 1′s and 0′s. Thus they ma be difficult to follow. But, a D/A converter help the user to interpret easily. Basically, a D/A converter have an op-amp. It can be classified into 2 types. They are 1. Digital to Analog Converter using Binary-Weighted Resistors A D/A converter using binary-weighted resistors is shown in the figure below. In the circuit, the op-amp is connected in the inverting mode. The…

#### Voltage Level Detector Circuit

This circuit is designed and submitted by Mr. Rakesh Bute. We are really thankful for his contribution. The circuit as explained by Rakesh: The design came from the interest of finding a new technique of analog to digital conversion. The two types of ADC (Analog to Digital Converter) that inspired me in the development of this circuit are Flash Type ADC and Successive Approximation Type ADC. The Flash Type ADC is the fastest ADC available in the market (highest sampling rate 120 Msps) but it uses a huge number of OP-AMPS. On the other hand Successive Approximation Type ADC uses…

#### Frequency to voltage converter

Frequency to Voltage converter circuit based on TC9400 IC. Description. A very simple and low cost frequency to voltage converter based on the TC9400 IC from Microchip is shown here. TC9400 can be either wired as a voltage to frequency converter or frequency to voltage converter and it requires minimum external components. The functional blocks inside the TC9400 includes integrator opamp, 3uS delay circuit, one shot circuit, charge discharge control circuit, divide by 2 network and necessary drivers. This circuit finds application in a range of electronic projects like frequency meters, tachometers, speedometers, FM demodulators etc. Circuit diagram. In the…