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Archive for the ‘Digital Electronics’Category

Pulse Width Modulation – What is it?


The good definition of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) is in the name itself. It means modulating/varying the width of the pulse (Not the frequency). To best understand what PWM is, let us first see some basic terminologies. Microcontrollers are intelligent digital components which live on binary signals. Best representation of a binary signal is a square wave. The following diagram explains the basic terminologies associated with a square wave signal. As the shown in the above diagram, the important thing to note in a PWM signal is that the time-period and hence the frequency is always fixed. Only the ON…

Half adder


Half adder circuit. To understand what is a half adder you need to know what is an adder first. Adder circuit is a combinational digital circuit that is used for adding two numbers. A typical adder circuit produces a sum bit (denoted by S) and a carry bit (denoted by C) as the output. Typically adders are realized for adding binary numbers but they can be also realized for adding other formats like BCD (binary coded decimal, XS-3 etc. Besides addition, adder circuits can be used for a lot of other applications in digital electronics like address decoding, table index…

Ripple carry adder


Ripple carry adder circuit. Multiple full adder circuits can be cascaded in parallel to add an N-bit number. For an N- bit parallel adder, there must be N number of full adder circuits. A ripple carry adder is a logic circuit in which the carry-out of each full adder is the carry in of the succeeding next most significant full adder. It is called a ripple carry adder because each carry bit gets rippled into the next stage. In a ripple carry adder the sum and carry out bits of any half adder stage is not valid until the carry in of…