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Multi-Channel Surround Sound Systems

Multi-channel Audio.

Multi-channel audio systems are widely used in modern sound devices. The term “multi-channel audio” means that, the audio system can be capable of handling multiple audio channels (usually called audio tracks) to rebuild the sound on a multi-speaker setup.

Usually two digits separated by a decimal (.) point (2.1, 4.1, 5.1, 6.1, 7.1, etc.) are used to classify the various kinds of speaker set-up, this number basically depending on how many audio tracks are used. Some audio systems only have a single channel (called monophonic sound or single channel audio) or two channels (stereophonic sound or 2.0 channel sound)

The first digit shows the number of primary channels (called satellite units), each of which are reproduced on a single speaker (these speakers are capable for handling the frequency range from 100Hz to 22Khz), while the second (decimal digit) refers to the presence of LFE (Low Frequency Effect), which is reproduced on a subwoofer

Circuit diagram

stereo amplifier circuit BA5417

Surround Sound System

Surround sound is a term used to describe a type of audio output in which the sound appears to “surround the listener” by 360 degrees – that is, the technology gives the impression that sounds are coming from all possible directions. Surround sound is a way to provide a more realistic and engaging experience. All technical aspects aside, surround sound works because multiple audio channels are received through speakers that are positioned at various locations in the room. This is programmed into the source and the sound tracks are decoded when the source is played.

The Surround Sound Setup

The main component of a surround sound setup is a multi channel or digital coaxial/optical audio decoder. Using a DVD/HVD movie, the audio is encoded when the DVD/HVD is produced by packing multiple audio channels into a compressed format for storage. When you play the DVD movie, your DVD player or A/V receiver (commonly called a home theatre receiver) decodes the encoding scheme (i.e. Dolby Pro Logic II or DTS for example). Decoding capabilities of an A/V receiver are built in. Most A/V receivers today can decode Dolby Digital and Digital Theater Sound (DTS) (DTS channel usually a coaxial or optical audio channel. It is a single channel digital pin that multiplexed with several channel. The decoder decodes the DTS sound from single channel to multiple channels), while higher-end receivers may also include DTS-ES or THX Surround.

Multi-channel Surround Sound Systems

  • 5.1 Surround Sound Systems

5.1 Surround sound systems are one of the widely used surround sound setup in home theater systems. Usually- Dolby Digital and DTS encoded in a DVD are 5.1 channel audio formats. 5.1 surround sound technologies produces five channels of sound in the left, right, center, left-surround and right-surround positions. These five channels are the minimum required to produce 5.1 surround sounds. The dot decimal (.1) represents the channel for LFE (low frequency effects), which is usually sent to a subwoofer. Other 5 units are capable for handling the frequency range except low frequency(Usually they are capable of handling the frequency range from 100Hz to 22Khz and no need for any other higher frequency component like tweeter). These five units are usually called satellite units. The arrangements of a 5.1 surround sound setup shown in the picture below.

stereo amplifier circuit BA5417
  • 6.1 Surround Sound Systems

6.1 multichannel sound technologies is the advanced version of 5.1 surround sound technology. 6.1 technology uses the same set-up as a 5.1 system, but it has the addition of a sixth speaker that takes the rear-center surround position (or back surround position) to provide a more 3-D realistic surround sound effect. 6.1 surround sound uses extended surround sound formats, such as THX Surround EX, Dolby digital ES and DTS-ES. The 6.1 channel surround sound setup is shown in the picture.

stereo amplifier circuit BA5417
  • 7.1 Surround Sound Systems

7.1 channel audio systems is the modified version of 6.1 channel and also provide more realistic experience than 6.1 setup. In this system splits the single rear-center speaker into individual left- and right-rear surround. These systems are not a true discrete 7.1 channel system as 7.1 formats don’t currently exist. In a true discrete 6.1 surround system, the back center surround position is separate from the surround left (SL) and surround right (SR) positions. A 7.1 channel system uses matrixes extended surround where the left-back and right-back (rear-center surround) multichannel are blended together and stored. The structure of a 7.1 setup is given in the Picture below.

stereo amplifier circuit BA5417
  • 10.2 Surround Sound Systems

10.2 channel surround is the future surround sound technology that Developed by THX corporation, the name itself, 10.2 is an advanced version of 5.1 technology but 10.2 is twice as good as 5.1. In a 10.2 surround sound 14 channels are used. This includes five front speakers, five surround channels, two LFE and two heights, plus the addition of a second sub-woofer. This technology is considered as future TRUEHD.The Diagram of a 10.2 TrueHD setup is shown below.

stereo amplifier circuit BA5417